Issues‎ > ‎Vol7No3‎ > ‎


Analyses of Aggressiveness, Impulsiveness, and Demographics of the Drivers in Sulaimaniyah City Using Questionnaire Forms

 Hardy Kamal Karim

a  University of Sulaimani, College of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department

Received 23 June 2020 , Accepted 09 November 2020,   Available online 30 December 2020


In order to increase traffic safety on our roads, certain forms of behavior and personality traits of passenger car drivers were studied. As an attempt to understand the potential contribution of drivers’ impulsiveness and aggressiveness in traffic accidents in Sulaimaniyah City, this study was conducted. The correlation between drivers’ impulsiveness and aggressiveness were also explored. Participants, who filled Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and Aggressive Driving Behavior Questionnaire (ADBQ), were 244 drivers. The male drivers who answered the questionnaires were 143, while female drivers were 101. The results of the statistical analyses showed that male drivers are driving more aggressively than female drivers; as a result, male drivers faced higher numbers of traffic accidents than female drivers. There were no significant differences between male and female drivers regarding drivers’ impulsivity. Speeding as a measuring scale of the aggressive driving is significantly correlated with second-order impulsiveness subscales. The attentional and motor impulsiveness subscales are more correlated with the total score of the driving aggressiveness than non-planning subscale. There was moderate correlation between the impulsiveness total score and the overall aggressiveness score. The impulsiveness of the drivers was negatively correlated with the drivers’ ages and positively correlated with number of crashes; while the driving aggressiveness was significantly correlated with number of crashes and negatively with gender and age of the drivers. The traffic police in Sulaimaniyah City can benefit from the results of this paper during permitting driving license and enforcement processes.


aggressiveness, impulsiveness, driver demography, traffic safety, driver behavior


[1] World Health Organization (WHO), “Global Status Report on Road Safety”, Global Status Report on Road Safety, 2018.
[2] Jonah B. A., Thiessen R., and Au-Yeung E., “Sensation Seeking, Risky Driving and Behavioral Adaptation, Accident Analysis and Prevention” Vol. 33(5): Page 679–684., 2001.
[3] Evans L., “Traffic Safety and the Driver”, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991.
[4] Pennsylvania Traffic Safety Enforcement Resource Center., “The Pennsylvania Aggressive Driving Enforcement and Education Project”.
[5] Techs/current/Aggressive-Driving-Enforcement-In-Two-Demonstration-Communities.
[6] Tasca L. “A Review of the Literature on Aggressive Driving Research”. Ontario, Canada: Ontario Advisory Group on Safe Driving Secretariat, Road User Safety Branch, Ontario Ministry of Transportation., Page 25, 2000.
[7] Özkan T., Lajunen T., Parker D., Sümer N., and Summala H., “Symmetric Relationship Between Self and Others in Aggressive Driving Across Gender and Countries”, Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol. 11(3): Page 228–239, 2010.
[8] AAA Foundation of Traffic Safety, “Aggressive driving: Research update”, Washington, DC, April, 2009.
[9] Parker D., Lajunen T. and Stradling S., “Attitudinal Predictors of Aggressive Driving Violations”. Transport. Res. Part F, 1, Page 11–24, 1998.
[10] Deffenbacher J., Lynch R., Oetting E., and Swaim R., “The Driving Anger Expression Inventory: A Measure of How People Express Their Anger on the Road”, Behavior Research and Therapy, Vol. 40 (6), Page 717-737, 2002.
[11] Deffenbacher J., Petrilli R., Lynch R., Oetting E., and Swaim R., “The Driver's Angry Thoughts Questionnaire: A Measure of Angry Cognitions When Driving.” Cognitive Therapy and Research, Vol. 27(4), Page 383-402., 2003.
[12] Deffenbacher J., Oetting E., and Lynch R., “Development of a Driving Anger Scale. Psychological Reports”, Vol. 74 (1), Page 83-91., 1994.
[13] Moeller G., Barratt E., Dougherty D., Schmitz J., and Swann, A., “Psychiatric Aspects of Impulsivity, American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 158 (11), Page 1783–1793, 2001. Available from internet: <>.
[14] Čabarkapa M., Čubranić-Dobrodolac M., Čičević S., and Antić, B., “The Influence of Aggressive Driving Behavior and Impulsiveness on Traffic Accidents”., International Journal for Traffic & Transport Engineering, Vol. 8 (3), Page 372-389, March 2018.
[15] Patton J. H., Stanford M. S., Barratt E. S., “Factor Structure of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale”, Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 51(6): Page 768–774, 1995 Available from internet: < JCLP2270510607%3E3.0.CO;2-1>.
[16] Cyders M. A., Smith G. T., Spillane N. S., Fischer S., Annus A. M., and Peterson C., “Integration of Impulsivity and Positive Mood to Predict Risky Behavior: Development and Validation of a Measure of Positive Urgency, Psychological Assessment”, Vol. 19(1), Page 107–118, 2007. Available from internet: <>.
[17] Eysenck S. B. G., and Eysenck H. J., “Impulsiveness and Venturesomeness: Their Position in a Dimensional System of Personality Description, Psychological Reports”, Vol. 43 (3), Page 1247–1255, 1978. Available from internet: <>.
[18] James L., and Nahl D., “Road Rage and Aggressive Driving: Steering Clear of Highway Warfare”., Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2000.
[19] Lajunen T., “Personality and Accident Liability: Are Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Psychoticism Related to Traffic and Occupational Fatalities? Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 31(8), Page 1365-1373, 2001 doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00230-0.
[20] Krahé B., and Fenske I., “Predicting Aggressive Driving Behavior: The Role of Macho Personality, Age, and Power of Car. Aggressive Behavior, Vol. 28, Page 21-29, 2002. doi:10.1002/ab.90003.
[21] Rudin-Brown C. M., and Noy Y. I., “Investigation of Behavioral Adaptation to Lane Departure Warnings”, Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1803, Page 30-37, 2002. doi:10.3141/1803-05.
[22] Iversen H., & Rundmo T., “Personality, Risky Driving and Accident Involvement Among Norwegian Drivers”, Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 33 (8), Page 1251-1263, 2002. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00010-7.
[23] Philippe F. L., Vallerand R. J., Richer I., Vallie`res E., and Bergeron J., “Passion for Driving and Aggressive Driving Behavior: A Look at Their Relationship”, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 39 (12), Page 3020–3043, 2009.
[24] Abojaradeh M., Jrew B., Al-Ababsah H., and Al-Talafeeh A., “The Effect of Driver Behavior Mistakes on Traffic Safety”, Civil and Environmental Research. ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online), Vol.6, No.1, 2014.
[25] Muti U., Siallagan M., Putro U., Marsetyawan, and Alamanda D. “Investigating Aggressive Driving Behavior in Reducing Traffic Congestion on Bandung City”, Journal Manajemen Teknologi, Vol. 17 (1), Page 151-165, 2018.
[26] Biçakisia P., and Özakan T., “Impulsivity and Driver Behavior, Offences and Accident Involvement: A Systematic Review”. Transportation Research Part F (2015).
[27] “Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (Revised)” John Wiely and Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd., 2013.
[28] Gurda, “Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of the Aggressive Driving Behavior Questionnaire (ADBQ)”, College of Science, University of Florida, Orlando, Florida, Spring 2012.