Issues‎ > ‎Vol7No3‎ > ‎


Mechanical Properties of Normal Strength Concrete Containing Different Types of Waste Material as Coarse Aggregate Replacement

1,a Parween Lateef Aziz , 2,Mohamed Rauof Abdulkadir

a,b University of Sulaimani, College of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department

Received 10 June 2020 Accepted 27 August 2020,   Available online 30 December 2020


In this study, the effect of different types of waste materials on the mechanical properties of normal strength concrete was investigated. Three types of waste material crumbed rubber, granular plastic, and crushed brick with different percentage up to 15% ( by weight of coarse aggregate) were used. The effect of waste material on the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and static elastic modulus of hardened concrete for 28 days of curing with constant w/c= 0.45 were studied. The maximum loss in concrete compressive strength was recorded to be 54.95%, 50.31%, and 20.41% for concrete mix with 15% crumbed rubber and plastic aggregate and 5% crushed brick particles. Maximum reduction in splitting tensile strength noticed to be 65%, 43.15%, and 13.59% for 15% replacement of crumbed rubber, granular plastic, and crushed brick respectively. The maximum loss in static elastic modulus was found to be 48.29%, 27.14, and 11.23% for concrete mix with 15% crumbed rubber, granular plastic, and 5% crushed brick. From test results it is concluded that up to 15% waste material can be safely used to produce this type of recycled concrete.


Crushed Brick , Crumbed Rubber , Granular Plastic , Mechanical Properties Waste Material.


[1] World Bussiness Council for Sustainable Development – WBCSD. End-of-life tyres: a framework for effective management systems; 2010.
[2] Chen S, Su H, Chang J, Lee W, Huang K, Hsieh L, et al. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the pyrolysis of scrap tyres. Atmosferic Environ 2007;41:1209–20.
[3] Mello D, Pezzin S, Amico S. The effect of post consumer PET particles on the performance of flexible polyurethane foams. Polym Test 2009;28:702–8.
[4] Debieb, F., & Kenai, S. (2008). The use of coarse and fine crushed bricks as aggregate in concrete. Construction and building materials, 22(5), 886-893.
[5] Vieira R, Soares R, Pinheiro S, Paiva O, Eleutério J, Vasconcelos R. Completely random experimental design with mixture and process variables for optimization of rubberized concrete. Constr Build Mater 2010.
[6] Albano, C., Camacho, N., Reyes, J., Feliu, J. L., & Hernández, M. (2005). Influence of scrap rubber addition to Portland I concrete composites: destructive and non-destructive testing. Composite Structures, 71(3-4), 439-446.
[7] Aiello, M. A., & Leuzzi, F. (2010). Waste tyre rubberized concrete: Properties at fresh and hardened state. Waste Management, 30(8-9), 1696-1704.
[8] Ganjian, E., Khorami, M., & Maghsoudi, A. A. (2009). Scrap-tyre-rubber replacement for aggregate and filler in concrete. Construction and building materials, 23(5), 1828-1836.
[9] Pierce, C. E., & Williams, R. J. (2004). Scrap tire rubber modified concrete: Past, present and future. In Proceedings of the International Conference Organized by the Concrete and Masonry Research Group, Kingston University-London, Eds MC Limbachiya and JJ Roberts, Sustainable Waste Management and Recycling: Used-Post-Consumer Tyres, Thomas Telford (pp. 1-16).
[10] Skripkiūnas, G., Grinys, A., & Černius, B. (2007). Deformation properties of concrete with rubber waste additives. Materials Science (Medžiagotyra), 13(3), 219-222.
[11] Turatsinze, A., Bonnet, S., & Granju, J. L. (2007). Potential of rubber aggregates to modify properties of cement based-mortars: improvement in cracking shrinkage resistance. Construction and Building Materials, 21(1), 176-181.
[12] Turatsinze, A., & Garros, M. (2008). On the modulus of elasticity and strain capacity of self-compacting concrete incorporating rubber aggregates. Resources, conservation and recycling, 52(10), 1209-1215.
[13] Rahmani, E., Dehestani, M., Beygi, M. H. A., Allahyari, H., & Nikbin, I. M. (2013). On the mechanical properties of concrete containing waste PET particles. Construction and Building Materials, 47, 1302-1308.
[14] Prahallada, M. C., & Parkash, K. B. (2013). Effect of different aspect ratio of waste plastic fibers on the properties of fiber reinforced concrete e an experimental investigation. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology, 2, 1-13.
[15] Ávila Córdoba, L., Martínez-Barrera, G., Barrera Díaz, C., Ureña Nuñez, F., & Loza Yañez, A. (2013). Effects on mechanical properties of recycled PET in cement-based composites. International Journal of Polymer Science, 2013.
[16] Malagavelli, V., & Patura, N. R. (2011). Strength characteristics of concrete using solid waste an experimental investigation. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, 4(6).
[17] Ramadevi, K., & Manju, R. (2012). Experimental investigation on the properties of concrete with plastic PET (bottle) fibres as fine aggregates. International journal of emerging technology and advanced engineering, 2(6), 42-46.
[18] Nibudey, R. N., Nagarnaik, P. B., Parbat, D. K., & Pande, A. M. (2013). Strengths prediction of plastic fiber reinforced concrete (M30). International journal of engineering research and applications, 3(1), 1818-1825.
[19] Mathew, P., Varghese, S., Paul, T., & Varghese, E. (2013). Recycled plastics as coarse aggregate for structural concrete. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2(3), 687-690.
[20] Debieb, F., & Kenai, S. (2008). The use of coarse and fine crushed bricks as aggregate in concrete. Construction and building materials, 22(5), 886-893.
[21] Darshita, T., & Anoop, P. (2014). Study of strength and workability of different grades of concrete by partial replacement of fine aggregate by crushed brick and recycled glass powder. International Journal of science and Research, 3, 141-145.
[22] Padmini, A. K., Ramamurthy, K., & Mathews, M. S. (2001). Behaviour of concrete with low-strength bricks as lightweight coarse aggregate. Magazine of Concrete Research, 53(6), 367-375.
[23] Rani, M. U., & Jenifer, J. M. (2016). An Experimental study on partial replacement of sand with crushed brick in concrete. International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering (IJSTE), 2(08), 316-322.
[24] Zhang, S., & Zong, L. (2014). Properties of concrete made with recycled coarse aggregate from waste brick. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, 33(4), 1283-1289.
[25] Cachim, P. B. (2009). Mechanical properties of brick aggregate concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 23(3), 1292-1297.
[26] Lonth, C. F., Thomas, J., & Joseph, N. (2018, August). Mechanical Properties of Concrete Containing Brick Chips. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 396, No. 1, p. 012003). IOP Publishing.
[27] ASTM, C33 "Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates, in." ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, United States (2016).
[28] ASTM, C128 "Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density ( Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Fine Aggregate." (2012).
[29] ASTM, C29 "Standard test method for bulk density ("Unit weight") and voids in aggregate." American Society for Testing and Materials: West Conshohocken, PA, USA (2017).
[30] ASTM, C150 "Standard Specification for Portland Cement." American Society for Testing and Materials: West Conshohocken, PA: USA (2017).
[31] ASTM, C39 "Standard test method for compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens." West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM, (2012).
[32] ASTM, C496 "Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2004." (2011).
[33] ASTM, C469 " Standard Test Method for Static Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson's ratio of Concrete in Compression." ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, DOI 10., (2014).