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Assessment of the Quality of Ground Water in Kalar City- Kurdistan Region- Iraq

1,a Hnar Ali Karim Al-Jaf , 2,Nyaz Fadhil Ahmed Jaf

a,b,c University of Garmian, Building and Construction Engineering Department

Received 29 March   2020 ,  Accepted 19 June 2020 Available online 30 December 2020


This paper was carried out to test the quality of ground water in Kalar city- Kurdistan Region- Iraq, bacteria, TDS, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and nitrate were tested in order to the quality assessment. The assessment was done for the water quality of 39 wells in kalar city as case of study. It was concluded that TDS levels of these wells were high levels in general and the main reason was due to high levels of calcium and magnesium. Turbidity, pH, sodium, potassium and nitrate values for the samples of water were in standard region. The maximum and non-standard values of TDS, calcium and magnesium were recorded in sample of well no. 27 in values of 545 mg/l, 149 mg/l and 52 mg/l respectively. The research suggested water softener system to cure the hardness of the ground water by decreasing the high levels of TDS, calcium and magnesium to be in safe ranges. It was also proposed the reverse OSMOSIS removes as a second way of ground water treatment. High level of TDS was reduced to standard range from 545 mg/l to 296 mg/l through the water softener system and reduced to 98 mg/l through the reverse OSMOSIS. It found that ground water may contain bacteria such as E. coli and Coliform, and chlorine treatment can be used to avoid bacteria contaminant.


Well Water Quality, Water Treatment, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Calcium, Magnesium


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