Issues‎ > ‎Vol6No2‎ > ‎


The Role of Urban Pattern Indicators in Achieving Sustainable Urban Forms in the Developed Countries - A Pragmatic Evaluation of Two Sustainable Urban Contexts
1,a Dr. Rebwar Ibrahim,2,aProf. Sabah Mushatat,3, b Prof. Mohammed G. Abdelmonem
a School of Architecture and Built Environment, University of Wolverhampton, UK, b School of Architecture and Built Environment, University of Nottingham Trent, UK
Received : 02/08/2018, Accepted : 28/09/2018 , Published : 01/04/2019
DOI Link:

     Since cities are constantly changing, their new forms and activities are developed according to their patterns and physical arrangements.  Sustainable urban forms are currently a widely discussed topic in the concept of urban sustainability. The physical forms of cities can be conceptualised as two interlocking planes. The first comprises the spatial distribution of activities and buildings. The second is made up of the pattern of streets, parks and the public realm. Sustainable integration between these layers leads to a compatibly built environment. This paper intends to formulate sustainable urban form indicators as a conceptual framework model that provides a comprehensive understanding of how sustainability can be evaluated and measured according to the pattern of any built environment. This framework consists of eight indicators: Accessibility, Connectivity, Compatibility, Diversity, Nodality, Density, Identity, and Adaptability. Accordingly, two of the most significant sustainable urban districts have been chosen for field study. The first is the Hammerby residential district in Stockholm, Sweden and the second is the Vauban residential district in Freiburg, Germany. The research concludes that good performance of urban pattern indicators in these developed communities may motivate, inform and improve design strategies for achieving a more sustainable urban context.


urban patterns; sustainable urban form; developed countries; Hammarby;

1. D. Farr, Sustainable Urbanism, Urban Design with Nature, New Jersey: Wiley and Sons, 2008
2. H. Suzuki, R. Cervero, and K. Luchi, Transforming Cities with Transit, Transit and Land-Use Integration for Sustainable Urban Development, Washington DC: The World Bank, 2013
3. M. Santamouris, Environmental Design of Urban Buildings; an Integrated Approach, London: Earthscan, 2006
4. K. Williams, E. Burton and M. Jenks, Achieving Sustainable Urban Form, London: E&FN Spon, 2000
5. M. Jenks, and N. Dempsey, Future Forms and Design for Sustainable Cities, Oxford: Architectural Press, 2005
6. M. Jenks, and C. Jones, The Dimensions of the Sustainable Cities, London: Springer, 2010
7. P. Newman, and I. Jennings, Cities as Sustainable Ecosystems, Principles and Practices, Washington: Island Press, 2008
8. E. Burton, and L. Mitchell, Inclusive Urban Design; Streets for Life, Oxford: Architectural Press, 2006
9. M. R. Masnavi, M. R. Sustainable Urban Forms planning and Design Strategies: Saarbrucken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 2011
10. E. Talen, Sprawl retrofit: sustainable urban form in unsustainable places, Environment and Planning B, vol. 38, 2011, pp. 952 -978
11.M. Carmona, T. Heath, T. OC., and S. Tiesdell, Public Places Urban Spaces, Oxford: Architectural press, 2003
12. Y. Song, and G. Knaap, Measuring Urban Form, Is Portland Winning the War on Sprawl?, Journal of the American Planning Association, vol.70(2), 2004, pp.210-225.
13. A.Z. Scheel, Sustainable Transformation of Cities: The Case of Eindhoven, the Netherlands, International Conference in Management and Innovation for a Sustainable Built Environment, 20 – 23                 June 2011, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
14. K. Lynch, Good City Form. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1984
15. M. Neuman, The compact City Fallacy, Journal of Planning Education and Research, vol. 25, 2005, pp. 11-26
16. H. Barton, R. Guise, and M. Grant, Shaping Neighbourhoods: for Local Health and Global Sustainability, New York: Routledge, 2010
17. P. Sassi, Strategies for Sustainable Architecture, New York: Taylor and Francis, 2006
18. C. Moughtin, Urban Design, Street and Square, 3rd ed., Oxford: Architectural press, 2003
19. H. Frey, Designing the City, Towards a More Sustainable Urban Form, London: Spon Press, 1999
20. S. Porta, P. Crucitti, and V. Latora, Multiple centrality assessment in Parma: a network analysis of paths and open spaces, Urban Design International, vol. 13, 2008, pp.41–50.
21. M. Jenks, E. Burton, and K. Williams, The Compact City: a Sustainable Urban Form?, London: E&FN Spon, 1996
22. Y.R. Jabareen, Sustainable Urban Forms: Their Typologies, Models and Concepts, Journal of Planning Education and Review, vol. 26, 2006, pp.38- 52.
23. G. Tower, An Introduction to Urban Housing Design, At Home in the City. Oxford: Architectural Press, 2005
24. J. Kriken, P. Enquist, and R. Rapaport, City Building, Nine Planning Principles for the Twenty-First Century, New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2010
25. G. Bristow, Resilient Regions: re-placing regional competitiveness, Cambridge Journal of Regions Economy and Society, vol.1, 2010, pp.153-167.