Issues‎ > ‎Vol6No2‎ > ‎


The Second Skin of the Heritage Cities, Old Mosul Second Skin
Dr. Oday Q. Alchalabi

1Architecture Department, Nawroz University, 2Architecture Department, College of Engineering, University of Mosul

Received : 03/01/2019, Accepted : 02/05/2019
DOI Link:

     The images of the heritage cities are the key of the conservation process that deals with the visible and invisible factors. The psychological effects of the image on the recipients’ cognitive process can create an aesthetic value of the city. There are two types of skins, which are visible and invisible. The invisible skin is; the skin generated between the recipient’s body and the skin of the place. The matching between these skins can create the second skin, which positively or negatively affects the image of the heritage cities. The study is to identify the second skin of the old Mosul city as in-depth documentation of the heritage elements that can create the matching of the two skins. The research question of the study is “What are the elements of the psychical second skin in the heritage city of Mosul”.  Therefore, the study used a mixed methodology (Qualitative and Quantitative) to reach the aim of the study. Survey technique used to find the answer from the users of the place, also interview with architectural and heritage experts. The primary results show that the second skin of the city depends on the intangible element more than tangible. Therefore, urban elements have a giant impact on the image of the place. The conservation processes should focus on the elements that can sustain the skin of the city as a heritage image and inherited a tangible and intangible culture.


second Skin, psychical skin, tangible and intangible culture.

1- Abdulqader, O. Q. (2017). The simplicity and complexity of the interior design elements of the peranakan cina coffee shop, georgetown, penang . Penang: usm.
2- Alchalabi, O. Q., Aldabagh, M. S., & Saad, A. H. (2009). Mechanism of creation shape and syntaxes,. 12th International Generative Art conference (pp. 467-483). Milano- Italy: Domus Arginia, Politecnico di Milano university.
3- Alsoofe, H. H., Alkymakchy, N. T., & Ismaeel, E. H. (2012). A comparison between synthetic space analysis and intangible heritage investigation in urban conservation. Euromed.
4- Bonn, M. A., Joseph- Mathews, S. M., DAI, M., Hayes, S., & Cave, J. (2007). Heritage/Cultural Attraction Atmospherics: Creating the right Environment for the Heritage/Cultural Visitor. Journal of Travel Research, 45(3), pp. 345-354.
5- Caan, S. (2011). Rethinking Design and Interiors Human Beings in the Built Environment. London: Laurence King Publishing Ltd.
6- Ching, F. D., & Binggeli, C. (2012). Interior Design Illustrated (3 ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
7- Chuang, W.-C., & Chiou, S.-C. (2009). The Study of the Need of Interior Design Based on the Interaction between Humans and Environment. International Journal of the Humanities, 7(4), 145-160.
8- Farahani, B. M., Abooali, G., & Mohamed, B. (2012, July ). George Town World Heritage Site: What We Have and What We Sell? Asian Culture and History, 4(2), 81-90.
9- Hasan, H. A. (2007). Psychological language in the architecture, the entrance in architectural psychology. Damascus, Syria: Dar Safahat Publisher.
10- Hassan, H. A. (2007). Psychological language in the architecture, the entrance in architectural psychology. Damascus, Syria: Dar Safahat Publisher.
11- Horton, T. (2001). The Power of Visual Presentation: Tony Horton, Portfolio. New York, USA: Visual Reference Publication Inc.
12- Imon, S. D., Dioko, L. A., Ong, C. E., & Kane, M. (2007). Cultural heritage specialist guide training and certification program for UNESCO world heritage sites (4 ed.). Macao: Institute for Tourism Studies.
13- KarakuL, Ö. (2011). An integrated approach to conservation based on the interrelations of tangible and intangible cultural properties (1). METU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture, 28(2), 105-125.
14- Lupton, E. (2002). Skin: Surface, Substance, and Design. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.
15- Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City. London : The MIT Press.
16- Mohamed, B., Abooali, G., & Omar, S. I. (2012). Conservation and Revitalization of a Historical Inner City: The Case of George Town World Heritage Site. 3rd International Academic Consortium for Sustainable Cities (IACSC) Symposium, (pp. 21-30). Thailand.
17- Mostaedi, A. (2007). New Perspectives CAFES,BARS & RESTAURANTS. Barcelona, Spain: Carles Broto.
18- Orbasli, A. (2002). Urban Conservation. , London: E & FN Spon is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group.
19- Rusalic, D. (2009). Making the intangibale tangible: the new intrface of Cultural Heritage (Vol. 63). Belgrade: Institute of Ethnography SASA.
20- Shyllon, F. (2016). Cultural Heritage and Intellectual Property:Convergence,Divergence, and Interface. In W. Logan, M. Craith, & U. Kockel, A companion to heritage studies (pp. 55–68). Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.
21- UNESCO. (2011). Intangible Cultural heritage, Operational guidelines for the implementation of the world heritage convention. Retrieved Jun 20, 2014, from unesco, Uniter Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization:
22- UNESCO. (2018, 8 17). Tentative lists: Old City of Mosul. Retrieved from World Heriateg Site: UNESCO :
23- Vernet, D., & de Wit, L. (2007). Boutiques and Other Retail Spaces: The Architecture of Seduction. New York: Taylor & Francis.
24- Weinthal, L. (2013, June). Interior Skins. International Journal of Interior Architecture & Spatial Design.