Issues‎ > ‎vol4n5en‎ > ‎


Evaluating Public Parks as Walkable Places towards Achieving Livable Cities.
Musaab Sami Al-Obeidy
Architectural Department - Cihan University/Sulaimaniya
Received : 8/12/2016, Accepted : 07/9/2017
DOI Link:
In ancient times, walking was the first mode of transportation that human used, where humans walked on the earth in search of food, water, and shelter. Nowadays following many decades of development, the nature of mankind has changed due to a change in their needs and lifestyle, which includes the emergence and development of transportation modes, such as cars, buses, and trains. Modes of travel from place to place have changed, whereas reliance on using cars in travel is increasing. The problem of the study is increasing the use of cars and depending on them as a major mean of transportation instead of walking on foot. Hence, the concept of walkability is manifested, and is defined as the extent to which walking is readily available to the pedestrian as a safe, connected, accessible, and pleasant activity. Through this definition, this research examines or evaluates factors of walkability in National Park in Kuala-Lumpur through studying and analyzing dependent travel mode and behavior of its users. The Kuala Lumpur City was chosen as the case study based on being the capital of Malaysia and the only city being included in the Annual World Ranking of the Most Livable Cities in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to diagnose factors that have an impact on walkability, thus supporting travel by foot, using public transportation and bicycle, and reducing the usage of cars. All of these issues are to make Kuala-Lumpur as a more livable city and within top 20 livable cities in the world in 2020. The methodology of research depends on two types of techniques: quantitative as the main technique by applying 240 questionnaire surveys; and the qualitative technique in support of the first technique by applying 20 interviews, as well as direct observation of the location. This study concludes that it is difficult to reduce dependency on cars as mode of moving from place to other, since there is a lack in providing comfort and safety, which affects other factors of walkability. Thus, listing Kuala-Lumpur within the best 20 livable cities in the world as 2020 plan will be more difficult.

KEYWORDS : Walkability; Livable Cities, Public Parks.

1. Abbaszadeh, F. A. (2011). Characterization of Physical Elements of Street Design. Unpublished PhD thesis. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai.
2. Abdul Karim, H., and Azmi, D. I. (2013). Convenience and Safety of Walking Experience in Putrajaya Neighbourhood Area. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Science 101 (2013), 318-327.
3. Abdul Manan, M. M., and Varhelyi, A. (2012). Motorcycle fatalities in Malaysia. IATSS Research. 36 (2012) 30–39.
4. Abley, S. (2005). "Walkability Scoping Paper". Retrieved March 04, 2011.
5. Alfonzo, M. A. (2005). ‘To walk or not to walk? The hierarchy of walking needs.’ Environment and Behaviour 37: 808-836.
6. Ariffin, R. N. R., and Zahari, R. K. (2013). Perceptions of the Urban Walking Environments. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 105 ( 2013 . 589 – 597.
7. Bauman, A., F. Wallner, A. Miners, and V. Westley-Wise (1996). No ifs no buts Illawarra physical activity project: Baseline research report. Commonwealth Department of Health and Family Services, Warrong, New South Wales.
8. Brown, B. Werner, C. M., Werner, J. M., and Szalay, C. (2007). Walkable Route Perception and Physical Features: Converging Evidence for En Route Walking Experience. Environment and Behaviour, 39, 34-61.
9. Choi, E. (2012). Walkability as an Urban Design Problem: Understanding the Activity of Walking in the Urban Environment. Unpublished thesis. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Architecture and the Built Environment, Stockholm.
10. Creswell, J. W. And Clark V. L. P. (2011). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. (2nd ed). SAGE publication.
11. De Vaus, D. (2014). Surveys in Social Research. (6th edition). Routledge.
12. Economic Intelligence Unit. (2011). A summary of the Liveability Ranking and Overview. Retrieved September 13,2011, from
13. Esfahani S. K. (2012). Evaluation of Walkability and Satisfaction in Sustainable Urban Neighborhood, Precinct 9 in Putrajaya.
14. Fard, S. J. (2012). Walkability in Campus, Case Study University Technology Malaysia. Unpublished Master Thesis. University Technology Malaysia.
15. Forsyth, A. & Southworth, M. (2008). Cities Afoot—Pedestrians, Walkability and Urban Design. Journal of Urban Design. 13 (1), 1-3
16. Gray, D. E. (2014). Doing Research in the Real World. (4th ed). British, SAGE publication.
17. Grignaffini, S., Cappellanti, S. & Cefalo, A. (2008). Visualizing sustainability in urban conditions. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 1, 253-262.
18. Haji Bilyamin, S. F. I. (2014). Factors Influencing the Walkability of Kuala Lumpur City Centre. Unpublished Master's Thesis. University Technology Malaysia.
19. Hassaballa, H. A., (2013, June 17). Filling the Gap: Selecting a Location for a New Walkable Facility. Location Intelligence. Retrieved on Febreury 15, 2016, from
20. Hawthorne, W. (1989). Why Ontarians walk, why Ontarians don't walk more: A study of the walking habits of Ontarians. Energy Probe Research Foundation, Ontario.
21. Ja'afar, N. H. and Usman, I. M. S. (2009). Physical and Transportation Elements of Traditional Street in Malaysia. European Journal of Social Sciences. Volume 9 (4), p.669- 676.
22. Malaysia Automotive Association. (2016). Total Number Registered Vehicle in Malaysia 2000-2009. Retrieved February 7, 2016, from
23. Mau, A. T. K. (2013). Making KL the 20th most competitive and liveable city by 2020. Retrieved July 23, 2016 from
24. Mayor of London (2004), Making London a walkable city: The Walking Plan for London. Transport for London .
25. Oxford Advance Learner Dictionary. (2010). (10th ed.). UK: Oxford University Press.
26. Parks, J. R. and Schofer J.L. (2006). Characterizing Neighborhood Pedestrian Environments with Secondary Data. Transportation Research Part D, 11, 250 263.
27. Pemandu (2016). Making KL a Top 20 Most Livable City. Retrieved December 10, 2016 from
28. Punch, K. F. (2014). Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Sulaimani Journal for Engineering Sciences / Volume 4 - Number 5 – 2017 Approaches. (3th edition). Great Britain. Sage Publications.
29. Sarkar, S. (2002). Qualitative Evaluation of Comfort Needs in Urban Walkways in Major Activity Centers. Committee on Major Activity Center Circulation Systems. Transportation Research Board, 2003.
30. Sean, O. H. (2010). Malaysia: Road Fatalities at Alarming Level. Retrieved July 20, 2016 from
31. Shamsuddin, S., Abu Hassan, N. R., and Bilyamin, S. F. I. (2012). Walkable environment in increasing the liveability of a city. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences 50 (2012), 167-178.
32. Shamsuddin, S. Sulaiman, A. B. Jaafar, H & Mad Noor, M. (2004). Kriteria Kejayaan Jalan Membeli belah Tradisional di Malaysia: Kajian Kes Kuala Lumpur. Fakulti Alam Bina. Malaysia, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Retrieved from
33. Southworth, M. (2005). Designing the Walkable City. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 131, 246-257.
34. SPUR (2013). SPUR's Design for Walkability Initiative. Retrieved February 15, 2016 from
35. Stantec (2010). Walkability: Proposed Walkability Strategy for Edmonton. Stantec Consulting Ltd.
36. Steve, A. (2005). Walkability Scoping Paper. Retrieved January 20, 2012 from
37. Ujang N., et al. (2012). The Influence of Context and Urban Structure on the Walkability of Bukit Bintang Commercial District, Kuala Lumpur. Alam Cipta. Vol 5 (1), 15-26
38. Zakaria, J. and Ujang, N. (2015). Comfort of Walking in the City Center of Kuala Lumpur. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences 170 (2015), 642-652.
39. World Life Expectancy (2014). Road Traffic Accident Report. Retrieved July 20, 2016 from